Appropriate Paraphrasing

Appropriate Paraphrasing Example 1

Original Text 1:

“The multiplicity of strategies in cigarette ads show that the advertising agencies of contemporary capitalism are not at all sure as to what will attract consumers to their products, or with what images consumers identify. For, as I have been arguing, one of the features of contemporary culture is precisely the fragmentation, transitoriness and multiplicity of images, which refuse to crystallize into a stable image culture.” (p. 255)

Kellner, D. (1995). Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. New York: Routledge.

Unacceptable (author not acknowledged, no quotation marks around direct quotes)

Multiple strategies in cigarette ads demonstrate that the contemporary advertising agencies do not know what images will attract consumers. Fragmentation, transitoriness and multiplicity of images are the features of contemporary culture that do not allow an image culture to stabilize.

Unacceptable (nearly verbatim quote with no quotation marks or page number)
The multiplicity of strategies in cigarette ads show that the advertising agencies of contemporary capitalism are not at all sure as to what will attract consumers to their products, or with what images consumers identify. For one of the features of contemporary culture are precisely the fragmentation, transitoriness and multiplicity of images, which refuse to crystallize into a stable image culture (Kellner, 1995).

Unacceptable (gives only partial credit)
Contemporary advertising agencies illustrate their uncertainty about what kinds of images consumers identify by using multiple approaches and strategies for advertising cigarettes. Kellner (1995) argues that contemporary culture, with its diversity of images, fragmentation and transitory nature, will never allow a stable image culture to emerge.

Acceptable
Kellner (1995) argues that cigarette ads, with their ever-changing strategies and images, demonstrate that advertising agencies do not know which images will resonate with consumers. He believes contemporary culture does not allow a stable image culture to form precisely because of its fragmented and transitory nature.

**These are to be used as examples only. Please refer to appropriate style guides for the citation style you require.

Appropriate Paraphrasing Example 2

Original Text 2:

“Research has long pointed to the dramatic power of peer influence in adolescence and young adulthood, but what has not been adequately considered in previous research and prevention strategy is whether this peer influence comes simply from what other peers actually believe is the right thing to do and how they behave, or from what young people think their peers believe is right and how they think most others behave.” (p. 8)

Perkins, H.W., Ed. (2003). The Social norms approach to preventing school and college age substance abuse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Unacceptable (good paraphrase but no citation)
Research shows that young people are susceptible to peer pressure but it is unclear whether or not they actually know what their peers are thinking.

Unacceptable (gives only partial credit)
While we know that youth are dramatically influenced by their peers, research has not adequately considered where that influence comes from. Perkins (2003) points out that young people might know what their peers believe in terms of the right way to behave, but it is also possible that they are simply making an educated guess.

Unacceptable (nearly verbatim quote without quotation marks or page number)
Research has long pointed to the dramatic power of peer influence in adolescence, but what has not been adequately considered in previous research and prevention strategy is where that influence comes from (Perkins, 2003).

Unacceptable (misrepresents the author’s intent)
Research, according to Perkins (2003), has been woefully negligent in answering questions about peer pressure and its effects on young people. He claims that flawed methodologies have resulted in important questions about what adolescents know not being answered.

Acceptable
Perkins (2003) claims that, while research has shown that young people are heavily influenced by their peers, no one has looked into whether they know what their peers actually believe or whether they are behaving in ways they think would gain their peers’ approval.

Acceptable
According to Perkins (2003), current research into the effect of peer pressure on adolescent behaviour does not address the question of whether young people actually know what their peers think.

**These are to be used as examples only. Please refer to appropriate style guides for the citation style you require.